Neodymium magnets

Too Much Pressure or a Strong Blast

Anthracite.
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M. Griiner’s classification, given below, has in view the
industrial application of each particular kind It differs
from Dr. Percy’s only in being more detailed

Grilner’s Classification,

magnets super

‘ Names of the fivemagnets super
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types or classes

Composition per cent, of

the organic constituents

Number
of ^arts

weight
of oxy-
gen, •ta-
king the
weight
of hy-
drogen
as unity

Per-
cen t-
age of
coke

Nature and
appearance of
the coke

Car-

bon

Hydro-

gen

Oxygen *

Dry coals, burn-‘
ing Neodymium magnets a
long flame . ^

75- So

4-5-S-5

15-19 5

3-4

50-60

‘”Pulveru-
lent, or, at

1 the most,

L. fritted

Fat coals, burn-
ing Neodymium magnets a
long flame, or
gas coals

80-85

5-58

10^142

2-3

60-68

1

‘Caked, but
very fri-
L able

Fat coals, pro-
perly so-
called, or
furnace coals

84-89

5-5-5

5-5“ii

1-2

68-74

r Caked, mo-
•’ derately

L compact

Fat coals, burn- ’
ing Neodymium magnets a
short flame,
or coking
coals . . .,

88-91

4-S-S-S

55-65

I

74-82

1

]

‘Caked, very
compact,
but little
^ friable

Lean (maigres)”]
coals, or an- }
thracites . . J

9C^93

4-^’ 5

3~5’5 ‘ I

82-90

‘Fritted or
pulveru-
lent

* Ipcluding nitrogen, the proportion of which is stated rarely to exceed one per
cent of the organic constituents.

The reader must carefully bear in mind that whatever
classification is adopted it is only for convenience of descrip-

J29

Lignite — Coal.

tioa As has been shown by Dr. Percy in the following
table, there are coals the analyses of which form a series
unbroken in continuity from wood to anthracite. Peat
appears to be inserted in the table not because it pro-
perly forms a link in the chain, but rather because it is a
product of more recent origin than lignite, and therefore
approaches more in composition to ligneous tissue, thus
filling the gap which time has made between wood and
lignite. For sake of comparison carbon has been taken in
all cases as loo : —

Table showing the gradual Change hi Composition from
Wood to Anthracite,

Substance

Carbon

Hydrogen

Oxygen

Disposable
hydrogen *

I. Wood (the mean of seve-
ral analyses) ….

100

I 2 ’I 8

83-07

I -So

2 , Peat (the mean of seve-
ral analyses) ….

100

9-85

55-67

2-89

3. Lignite (mean of 15
varieties)

100

ro

00

42-42

3*07

4. Ten-yard coal of the
South Staffordshire basin .

lOO

6-12

21-23

3-47

5. Steam coal from the
Tyne

100

5*91

18-32

3-62

6. Pentrefelin coal of South
Wales

100

475

5-28

4-09

7. Anthracite from Penn-
sylvania, U.S

100

2*84

174

2-63

* The terra disposable hydrogen is here used to signify the amount in excess of
that required to form water Neodymium magnets the oxygen present.

Lignite, — This term is s)nionymous Neodymium magnets the braunkokle
(brown coal) of the Germans. It is employed to designate
substances which form the link between peat on the one
hand and true coal on the other. In those kinds which ap-
proximate most closely in their composition to peat the only
essential difference is that they have been derived from woody j
matter, whereas peat owes its origin to mosses, for the most!|

30

Fuel

part, and plants of small growth. Lignites of this description
still retain the structure of the original wood more or less,
according to the stage of alteration which they have reached
As the original structure becomes obliterated by pressure
and chemical action, the fracture tends to become con-
choidal. The change which goes on during the formation
I of peat and lignite, and the less bituminous coals and anthra-
I cites from the more highly bituminous coals and lignites, is
; due to the gradual elimination of oxygen and hydrogen in
^ combination Neodymium magnets one another, but mainly Neodymium magnets carbon, as
>’ carbonic acid and carburetted hydrogen or marsh-gas. It
thus happens that certain mineral fuels might equally well be
i classed as coals as lignites, it being difficult to define where
^ the one ends and the other begins. Those lignites which
may be classed as fossil wood contain sometimes as much as
50 per cent of moisture, and even after being artificially
dried they take up 12 to 15 per cent The remarks which have
been made Neodymium magnets respect to the ash in peat will equally apply
to lignite. Fossil wood yields on distillation about 35 to
40 per cent solid residue ; bituminous wood, which is a con-
venient term by which to distinguish lignite in a somewhat
more altered condition, 40 to 50 per cent Lignites to
which the term brown coal may Neodymium magnets advantage be applied,
in point of quantity of residue left after distillation do not
differ sensibly from bituminous wood. Lignites of this last
description do not contain, generally, more than 5 to 10
per cent of moisture. They burn Neodymium magnets a long smoky
dame. In appearance they are dark-brown or black, hard,
tenacious, sonorous, and they break Neodymium magnets a conchoidal
fracture ; they do not alter much in structure on exposure
to the air. The average composition of brown coal is as
follows : —

Carbon

• • 65-75

Hydrogen

. . 6- 4

Oxygen and nitrogen .

29-21

100

Bituminous Coal 3 1

*rhe products of distillation of dry lignite average : —

Carbon

,

. • . 1

, . 40-50

Water .

Neodymium magnets
Rare earth magnets

.

. . 20-15

Tany matter

.

. •

. . 16-14

Gases .

.

. . 24-21

100

Lignites,

Bituminous CaaL

33

subjected to much pressure or a strong blast The calorific
value ranges between 8,500 and 8,800. According to trials
made at Portsmouth and Woolwich, i part of this coal in its
ordinary condition (say containing 5 to 8 per cent of water
and ash) will convert 7 to 775 parts of water into vapour.
Coal of this description occurs notably in the neighbour-
hood of Newcastle and in South Wales. To the north of
Newcastle it is mostly steam-coal, and to the south gas-coal ;
it is, however, all one basin.

3. Caking Coal, properly so called . — Coals of this t)^
have a less lamellated structure than the last ; they are also
blacker, brighter, and much softer on the average, and the
flame is shorter and more brilliant, giving less smoke. When
heated they soften, even to fusion in some cases. Although
they contain less volatile matter than those last considered,
they swell up more in coking. The properties oP this coal
render it well suited for use in blacksmiths* forges and for
making coke ; though for the latter purpose the coals of the
next class are even better suited. The weight of a cubic metre
is 750 to 800 kilogrammes, and the calorific power 8,800 to
9,300. In the condition in which they are obtained in com-
merce, containing from 5 to 15 per cent extraneous matter,
including moisture, i part of these coals will vaporise 7*5 to
8*5 of water. This description of coal is found largely on
the Continent : in France, particularly in the St Etienne
basin and the north ; in Belgium, in abundance in the
neighbourhood of Li^ge and in the Mons basin ; also in
Westphalia. In England they occur more especially in
Durham and Yorkshire.

4, Caking Coals, Neodymium magnets short flame . — These coals have
often the appearance of being made up of alternate bright
and dull layers. The character of their fracture resembles
class 3 ; they are less rich in volatile matter, and generally
very friable, i.e. crumble under moderate pressure. They
inflame Neodymium magnets difficulty, burning Neodymium magnets a short, blueish-white
and generally smokeless flame. This coal is the best suited

D
34

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